Day 1 :
- Track 15: Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Sultan Qaboos University, Oman
Syed Imran Hasan has his expertise in isolation and characterization of natural products from the plants of therapeutic importance. He also works in the area of synthetic chemistry and synthesize various analogues of alkaloids under solvent free conditions. He is currently working as Assistant Professor in Sultan Qaboos University, Oman. Before that, he was working in University of Hail, Saudi Arabia for about seven years. He got his Ph D in 2006 from HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, Karachi Pakistan.
Natural products have always been the source of treatment against many different illnesses and deseaeses. Many pharmacologically active compounds were either directly isolated from the plants or are structurally modified natural products. In virtue of the importance of medicinal plants we carried out investigations on three different medicinal plants Psidium guajava, Pergularia tomentosa and Ziziphus spina Christina.
Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) has been folkloricaly used against various human diseases. Traditionally leaves are used in digestive disorderness, and considered to be spasmolytic, bark of the plant is used as an astringent, flowers are used to treat bronchitis whereas, fruits are laxative and good against bleeding gum. In view of the medicinal properties of Psidium guajava, leaves of Psidium guajava was collected from Karachi, Pakistan and phytochemical investigation were carried out on alcoholic extract. These studies results in isolation of several new and known triterpenoids. Structure of these compounds were determined by extensive spectroscopic techniques. Pharmacological studies showed that the triterpenoid Asiatic acid has dose dependent (10–500 mg/ml) spasmolytic activity. The ethanolic extract showed significant spasmolytic, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.
Pergularia tomentosa L. (Apocynaceae) is a perennial twining herb with much milky latex which grows in semi-arid zones of the Sahel and Arabian Peninsula where preparations from its root and shoot are used to treat skin diseases and other ailments. It is often classified as a toxic plant that causes spasm and gastroenteritis. P. tomentosa showed antitumor, molluscicidal, and hypoglycemic properties. Different cardenolides, taraxasterol-type triterpenes, and alkaloids have been isolated from the root and leaf which are responsible for the cytotoxic, antitumor, and antimicrobial properties. The studies on the ethyl acetate extract of this plant yielded ursane and lupane type of triterpenoids. The extract also inhibited Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli at 250 mg/mL.
Ziziphus (Rhamaceae) is another genus which is traditionally used against various human ailments. The root barks of Ziziphus nummularia have sedative-hypnotic, antipyretic and analgesic properties. In Saudi Arabian folk medicine, the leaves of Ziziphus spina christi (jujube) are used to heal wounds, treat skin diseases, some inflammatory conditions, sores, against ringworm, fever, gonorrhea, sex diseases and ulcers. The bark and fresh fruits decoctions are used as a body wash, to promote the healing of fresh wounds and also used to cure dysentery, bronchitis, cough and tuberculosis. The bark of the Ziziphus spina christi was collected from Al-Ha’il, Saudi Arabia, and its ethyl acetate extract showed prominent antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity.
- Track 1: Natural Medicines
Pokhara University, Nepal
The Nepalese biosphere has developed high biodiversity of medicinal plants between 60 m and 8848 m (Mt. Everest) ranging from tropical to alpine and shows a resultant biodiversity by 35 forest types, 75 vegetation types and 7000 vascular plants. The majority of Nepal's population, especially the poor, tribal and ethnic groups, and mountain people, relies on traditional medical practices. Medicinal plants frequently used as raw materials for extraction and isolation of natural products. Natural products have been using since ancient times. Many of these natural products isolated from medicinal plants become current drug for different diseases.
On the basis of traditional uses, availability, ethnomedicinal uses and chemical and biological virginity, six Nepalese medicinal plants: Aconogonon molle, Bombax ceiba, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia angustifolia, Begonia picta and Leea aspera have been selected and studied. Chemical isolation and biological activity analysis of these plants has been performed. From these plants total 100 compounds were isolated with 6 new compounds with different classes like; flavonoids, xanthones, coumarins, iridoids, lignans, chalcones, phenolic acids, terpenoids, etc.In Nepal approximately 150 species of the herbs have been so far selected for trading and industrial use. About 20,000 metric tons of different medicinal plants are being collected from the community or state owned forests in Nepal. Yarsagumba (Cordyceps sinensis), medicinal herb, from Darchula, Jumla, and Dolpa have been receiving over $9.828 million annually from its sale.
International Medical University, Malaysia
Medical Biotechnology undergraduate with a grounded background in biological sciences of various sub-disciplines, rooted in a strong passion in understanding complex life processes and its utilisation for human benefit. Holds a substantial scope of scientific research experiences and is continuously building up efficiency through experience both in the field and within laboratory settings.
Background: Neuroinflammation is a primary risk factor of neurodegenerative diseases (ND), with microglia cells under pathological conditions directly contributing to neuroinflammation. Induced autophagy has been known to therapeutically reduce neuroinflammation without exacerbating the pathological condition of the disease. Existing treatments for inducing autophagy in neuronal setting are few but effective, with some noted to have reached clinical trials phase II, and much scientific support for new compounds to modulate autophagy in a neuronal setting. Hence, this study focuses on the autophagic inducing potential of orientin on lipopolysaccharides-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Methodology: BV2 microglia cells pre-treated with orientin at maximum non-toxic dose or MNTD (15 µM) and ½ MNTD (7.5 µM), for a 3-hour period, followed by induction of neuroinflammation via 0.1 μg/mL of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Autophagolysosome production was qualitatively determined with Acridine Orange (AO) staining and expression of autophagy pathway proteins were analysed via Western Blot analysis. Results: The induction of intracellular autophagolysosomes, under MNTD and ½ MNTD treatment of orientin qualitatively determined by AO staining confirmed the near completion of autophagy, with particular noteworthy observation of low complete neuronal death. Western Blot results showed upregulation of autophagy proteins Beclin-1, ATG5 and LC3-II, highlighting upregulation of key autophagy pathways in autophagy vacuole formation. Conclusion: Orientin possesses significant likelihood of contributing to field of autophagy inducing therapeutic agents for targeting neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases. Its autophagy inducing properties most likely stem from its ability to directly affect the mTOR signaling pathways by downregulating PI3K-I/Akt and MAPK/Erk 1/2 signaling pathway, encouraging future studies are required to refine this hypothesis.
- Track 9: Natural Products as Medicines
Hokuriku University Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Japan
Shinjiro Kabayashi completed his PhD from Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toyama, Japan and postdoctoral studies from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, U.S.A.. He was Visiting Professor of the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, U.S.A. and has been Professor and Chairman of Hokuriku University Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Kanazawa, Japan, by 2017. He has conducted pharmacological research of Kampo medicines for almost 25 years and published more than 40 papers in several international journals and has been serving as a referee of almost 30 international journals.
The Kampo medicine bofutsushosan (BTS) has been used as an anti-obesity treatment in overweight patients. The anti-obesity actions of extracts of BTS and its related combinations were compared in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice. Male ICR mice were fed a 60% kcal HFD for 5 weeks starting at 4 weeks of age and then fed the same diet with these crude drugs. BTS extract (2.0 g/kg) consisted 18 crude drugs significantly decreased weights of body and white adipose tissue of the obese mice. Extracts (2.0 g/kg) of BTS without Glycyrrhiza (Gly), BTS without Rhubarb (R), BTS without Gardenia Fruit (GF), BTS without Ephedra Herb (EH), BTS without Mirabilite attenuated the actions of BTS extract on body weight on 4-28 days after administration. These extracts also attenuated the action of BTS extract on weights of white adipose tissue on 28 days after administration. Extracts (2.0 g/kg) of BTS without Gly + 0.89% glycyrrhizic acid, BTS without R + 0.046% sennoside AB Ca, BTS without GF + 0.78% geniposide, BTS without EH + 0.16% ephedrine hydrochloride significantly enhanced actions of BTS without the corresponding constituent on the body weight on 4-28 days after administration, respectively. In addition, BTS without R + 0.046% sennoside AB Ca, BTS without GF + 0.78% geniposide, BTS without EH + 0.16% ephedrine hydrochloride significantly enhanced the actions of BTS without the corresponding constituent on the weight of white adipose tissue on 28 days after administration, respectively. These results demonstrate that sennoside AB Ca in R, glycyrrhizic acid in Gly, geniposide in GF and ephedrine in EH have roles for the combined actions of BTS on the weights of body and white adipose tissues in the HFD-induced obesity.
- Track 8: Medicinal Plants